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What is white balance? Understanding White Balance in Digital Photography

Photography Basics – White Balance

White Balance in photography is all about balancing colors so that the image contains the represents the actual combination of colors in the scene. But, why do we actually need it? It is because; your camera does not have enough intelligence to recognize correct color in different lighting conditions.

In layman terms, we define “what is white” for camera by inserting a reference image, which is perfectly white in color taken under white light (i.e. broad day sunlight). Camera will show all the colors correctly till we are shooting under the broad day sunlight. But, as soon as the lighting condition changes, for e.g. under “yellow bulb”, camera cannot identify white, because it has a different reference image. Which means a perfectly white sheet under yellow bulb will look yellow in the image and not white.

To resolve this problem, we need to “Balance the White”, i.e. tell our camera again, what is “white” in current lighting condition. This is called “White Balance”. Once that is done, camera will again start showing all the colors correctly in that particular lighting condition.

The most important thing to remember is that we can easily manage “White Balance” in post editing. It is advisable to take the image in RAW format to get the maximum details. Any good post editing software can help you to change the White Balance and you can yourself define the correct color tones for the image.

This article will primarily help you in understanding the concept of WB, so that you can either manage it in post editing or even during the shoot.

Let us understand the concept further in technical terms.

Every light source has its own color temperature measured in Kelvin from 1,000 K (candle light or warmer) to 10,000 K (evening shade or cooler). Our eye does not see this difference but the camera does, as it does not have any intelligence to identify that the lighting conditions has changed. When we adjust our white balance we are telling the camera what is supposed to be “White” in current lighting condition.

Please refer below to the Kelvin scale below.

 

Sunlight is a pure white source and is right in the center of the Kelvin scale. Automatic White Balance (AWB) works best towards the center of the scale but fails as we reach the extremes.

If we set our camera’s white balance to sunny (i.e. color temperature of around 5000K in the middle) and photograph an object under incandescent light (i.e. under the light source with color temperature of 2500K), the photograph will have a yellow cast (please refer to the image above). If we photograph an object in the shade (i.e. under the light source with color temperature of 7500K) it will have a blue cast (please refer to the image above).

To correct this we must adjust our white balance. If we are photographing an object under incandescent lights we choose the tungsten white balance in our camera. We have shifted our white balance. Now everything that is photographed under an incandescent bulb will be color corrected and whites will look white, not yellow. But remember again, if you go under “Sunny” condition with this setting, your image will be bluish.

 

Similarly, if we move outdoors and set the white balance to shade, everything photographed in the shade will have a proper color tone. Things photographed in bright noon-day sun will become yellow. Things photographed under an incandescent light will be very yellow or orange with this setting.

 

 

Refer to the images of Kelvin scale above understand the shifting of White Balance. This will give you fairly good idea on how “White Balance” is working.

Unfortunately, we have only few presets of White Balance in our camera, which only represents the most often observed lighting conditions. However, to be more precise in handling your colors, you will need to do custom white balance.

How to do Customer White Balance in your camera: Most of the latest D-SLR Cameras support custom white balance. To do this, you need to take the image of 18% gray card (available in market) in the same lighting condition (Why 18% gray card? Because, an 18% gray card have RGB values approximately at the middle of the range i.e. 120,120,120. This mid range ensures that all the pixels of Red, Green and Blue (the primary colors) are activated equally). Go to customer White Balance setting and set this image as reference image. Now, when you will select customer White Balance in your WB setting, all the colors will be perfect in the image. However, remember to change the settings as soon as you go to some other lighting condition.

Certain Cameras even allow you to change the White Balance by entering the figures in Kelvin. But to avail this feature, you should first know the correct White Balance. External White Balance meters are available in market, which can tell the correct WB on the scene. But, this is relatively expensive equipment.

Here are some images to give further clarity of the concept.

White Balance set using Gray card

 

 At 3000K

 At 4200 K

  At 7200 K

 

 To understand more about White Balance, join classroom courses of Indian Institute of Photography and listen the concept directly from the expert’s mouth. You can practice, clarify doubts and see demonstrations, which will ensure the complete understanding of the fundamentals of White Balance.

 

Introduction to Shutter Speed in Digital Photography Part 2

Relation between shutter speed and focal length to get sharp pictures hand held

The thumb rule is that, your shutter speed must be equal to 1/focal length in seconds on full frame to get stable images. So, at 50mm, you shutter speed should be at least 1/50secs. For APS-C cameras keep it 1/FL x 1.6. So at 50mm, use at least 1/(50 x 1.6) = 1/80secs handheld to get sharp pictures.

However, when we use image stabilization function of the lens, we can use 2 to 3 f-stops slower shutter speeds. For e.g., using image stabilization function an ideal handheld shutter speed of 1/125 secs can be decreased to 1/30 secs without affecting the image quality.

Use of Shutter speeds for special effects
Slow shutter speeds can give special effects to your image, which are otherwise impossible to capture. Here are some of the special effects:

Panning: Panning helps in showing the movement in the scene. But it needs lots and lots of practice to get a perfect shot. Consider a moving object, like the man on vehicle in the image below.

Now, keep your shutter speed low (around 0.5 sec to 1 sec, but test it based on the situation) and move your camera along with the subject. This will keep the subject fixed w.r.t camera, however, all the other part of the scene would become stretched lines, giving the sense of movement. Try doing it using tripod or handheld, but be sure that you would need lot of practice to do it.
Zoom in – zoom out: This is again a slow shutter speed technique. You need a zoom lens for it. Keep shutter speed low (around 1 sec), install your camera on a tripod and move the zoom ring after pressing the button to click. You will get something like shown in the image below. This is a zoom out image, where the focal length has been decreased. You can try the opposite also. Take care, not to move camera too much in order to get the sharp image.

Light painting: Light Painting is done with very slow shutter speeds, ideally in “bulb” mode. Find a place which is pitch dark. It can be your room also. Arrange a light source such as torch (or anything else). Press the button of the D-SLR and go in front of it. Now, start moving the torch point it towards the camera. Camera will register the movement of the torch, so if you make any image in air, it will be registered in the image. Similarly, you can use this technique to paint a place with different colors of light.

The images below are taken using the same technique. Be sure, that even if you are present in the scene, you will not be visible as the light falling on you is too less compared to the different light sources which are pointing directly towards the camera.

To know more about shutter speed and shooting techniques, Join online courses of Indian Institute of Photography.

Introduction to Shutter Speed in Digital Photography Part 1

Photography Basics – Shutter Speed
Shutter Speed is one the three pillars of photography (among Aperture, Shutter and ISO), which controls the amount of exposure or light in the image. Shutter primarily controls the exposure time, i.e. the time for which the image sensor is exposed to the incoming light.

Refer to the yellow circle in the image of the camera above. This is the mirror, which is in between the light coming from the lens and the sensor (which is behind it). When we press the button to click the image, this mirror goes up and come back to the original position. The light entering through the lens falls on the sensor for the duration when the mirror is up. This flipping system is called shutter and the speed at which it flips is called the shutter speed. However, this system is different in some of the latest technologies such as Single Lens Translucent (SLT) and Mirrorless cameras. But, we will keep our discussion focused to not digital or D-SLR cameras, in which we have option to change or control the shutter speed (general using Tv or S modes).

The decision of shutter speed is based on the situation and the subject. Here are three general situations:

1) Fast Shutter Speed: A fast shutter speed above 1/500sec (i.e. 1/1000sec, 1/2000sec, etc) is required when we want to freeze a moment. The shutter is open for a very less amount of time; therefore, it will register a moment which has happened in 1/500secs. But, this also means that it will allow the light to fall on sensor for only 1/500secs, which is very less. So, to get a well exposed image at this shutter speed, the available scene should be enough bright. Below are the two images representing the use of fast shutter speeds. Similarly, fast shutter speed would be needed in clicking birds in flight, a zipping train or aero plane, sports person playing in fields, etc. So, anything, which is moving very fast and we need to freeze the moment, we will use fast shutter speeds.

If there is a situation, where you want to use faster shutter speed, but the light is very less, then you have to either increase the aperture size or increase the ISO. However, both have limits. Higher ISO will even introduce lot of noise, which will make your image ineffective.
2) Slow Shutter Speed A slow shutter speed of 1/50sec and below (i.e. 1/40sec, 1/20sec, etc) can portray the moment or speed. The shutter opens for relatively more time; therefore, it can show the sense of movement. The images below show the results of slow shutter speeds.

A slow shutter speed will also help in providing correct exposure in relatively less light i.e. during morning, evening or inside home.
3) Very slow shutter Speed: Very slow shutter speeds of 5 secs or slower are used in very low light situation and also to provide dramatic effect in the image. Very slow shutter speeds allow more time for camera to register the light, therefore, even in late evening to night situations, when the light levels are very low, camera will capture the image with correct exposure. Refer to the image below taken in very low light situation. Similarly, we can click city at night, star trails, lake side view at night, etc.

Remember that as we decrease the shutter speed, it will also start registering the movement of our hand. If the shutter speed is very low say below 0.5 or 1 sec, then it is difficult to get sharp pictures by holding camera in hand, as we cannot keep our hand stable for 1 sec. To overcome this, we need to use a fixed place (such as wall) or a tripod. The above picture is taken using a tripod. Without tripod, you cannot click such an image.

D-SLRs generally support only 30 sec of shutter speed. To further decrease the shutter speed, you need to select “bulb” mode, where you can keep the shutter open for any duration of time. This mode is available when you select the “Manual mode” in your equipment. Now, keep decreasing the shutter speed. After reaching 30sec, it will start showing “bulb”. In this mode, the shutter will remain open as long as the shutter button is pressed. You will need a remote release to use it effectively.

Source:Indian Institute of Photography

Part 2: DSLR Camera Lenses Basic Understanding

Different type of mount: Cameras (of same company) also have different types of mounts and there is some restriction on using these mounts. For e.g.

Canon has EF and EF-S mount. The EF mount can be used with full frame as well as APS-C D-SLR camera, however, we cannot use EF-S mount with the full frame body. Cost wise, EF-S are cheaper than EF lenses and are targeting towards hobby and amateur users.
Nikkor have FX, DX and CX fount for full frame, APS-C and Mirror less cameras. Although there is no restriction to use FX and DX mount lenses on full frame or APS-C cameras, but a DX mount on full frame gives the same view as APS-C camera (i.e. restricts the view). CX mount is specifically for mirror less cameras and cannot be used to full frame and APS-C cameras.

Information not available on lens body

Full time manual focus: Along with AF mode, there are some lenses (primarily high end lenses), which support parallel MF mode. This means, you can move the focus ring even in AF mode. This is not possible in cheaper lenses.

Number of aperture blades: More the number of aperture blades, smoother the bokeh circles and better it is. Higher quality lenses have more number of blades (more than 8) compared to low quality lenses, which have around 5 – 6 blades.

Weight of the lens: Weight of the lens is an important factor for using it handheld. Generally long zoom lenses and weather sealed lenses weight higher. The weight must be considered while comparing similar lenses.

Tripod collar:The lenses with long focal lengths (400mm, 500mm and above) are very bulky. Generally you need a tripod to use them. But, you cannot mount your camera on tripod (as usually done) with such heavy lens because it will imbalance the camera and the lens and they may even fall off. To manage this problem, these lenses have tripod collars, which is somewhere at 1/3rd of the distance from the camera. You can fit tripod head with this collar and use the set-up. This provides far better balance. Refer to the image below

Hood type:The lens specification sheet specifically mentions the code of the hood to be used with the lens. Local and third party hoods are also available at cheaper price but generally they are not as per specifications and they result in blocking the view of lens (so must be avoided).

Camera Lenses Basics

Let us take two examples (for Canon and Nikon each), to understand what we just read.

1) Canon Lens : EF 100-400mm F4.5-5.6L IS USM

In the lens specification above:

a) EF: It can be mounted on full frame as well as APS-C sensor camera.
b) 100-400mm is the focal range
c) At 100mm, the minimum F number is F/4.5 and at 400mm, the minimum F-number is F/5.6
d) This is Canon Luxury (L) lens, which means it employs high quality glass for better picture quality.
e) The lens supports image stabilization (IS)
f) The lens have Ultra Sonic Motor (USM) for quick and silent focus.

2) Nikkor AF VR zoom 80-400mm F/4.5-5.6 ED

In the lens specification above:

a) The lens supports auto focus (AF)
b) 80-400mm is the focal range
c) At 80mm, the minimum F number is F/4.5 and at 400mm, the minimum F-number is F/5.6
d) The lens supports vibration reduction (VR)
e) The lens have Extra Low Dispersion (ED) glass to better picture quality.

Source:Indian Institute of Photography

How to choose a DSLR camera

DSLR (Digital Single Lens Reflex) is the choice of today for anyone interested in photography. It gives you complete control on the image you capture. The market is already flooded with the range of products from different vendors. This range is primarily divided based on the cost. As the cost increases, the number of features, functions and quality of the product also increases. But, this does not necessarily mean that a better camera model will give you a better output. You have to capture the image; your camera will only assist you.

Now, the problem in hand is how to choose a D-SLR camera. What are the main points to be considered?

  • Purpose: The clarity of purpose of buying a DSLR is most important step to start your journey as photographer. If you are buying just because you have some extra money or you think that you can take better pictures using DSLR or if you think that you can impress anyone by hanging a DSLR on your neck, then you are surely wrong. A DSLR will never serve your purpose this way.

 

Buying a DSLR is just like buying a book of A B C D……You start your English learning with this book, then move to framing words, learning grammar, making sentences, writing stories and reciting poems (not all can reach at this level). Similarly, a DSLR will only enable you to understand the basics of manually controlling the light in an image. You have to take a long journey to become photographer.

 

  • Budget: The second most important factor is your budget. Now, when you have decided to buy a DSLR, the first thing, which you have to evaluate is the amount you money you can spare for buying it. Remember that, apart from the camera, there are some extra accessories, such as extra battery, UV filter, extra memory card, etc, which will need around Rs 5000 – Rs 7000 extra. So, plan your budget accordingly.

 

  • Level of understanding of Photography: If you are a beginner, then it is advisable to buy an entry level or mid ranged DSLR camera. Spending too much at the start (for e.g. on full frame camera) will not help much as you would not be able to take out the value for money before 2-3 yrs of intense photography learning. This suggestion is of course not applicable for those; you are not bothered for “value for money” and have enough money to buy any camera. In such case, go for a full frame camera and a professional quality lens.

 

  • Technology of Camera: DSLR is famous for its inter-changeable lenses; i.e., we can change the lenses based on the requirement. However, we now have more options apart from DSLR, such as Single Lens Translucent (SLT) and Mirror less cameras, which also provide the benefit of changing lens. Different technologies have different benefits. The biggest benefit of SLT and Mirror less cameras is their less weight and small form factor, which makes it easy to carry. However, these technologies are still evolving and vendors do not have as good lens line up as we have for DSLR. But if the form factor (the size of the camera) and weight is your prime concern, then you can surely give it a thought.

 

  • Camera vendor: Almost all vendors have some good and some average camera bodies. Reading reviews on different websites can give you fairly good idea about the benefits of a camera body; however, do not decide your vendor based only on the camera body. It must also be based on the lens lineup and other accessories. Camera is one time investment, however, lens and accessories is an ongoing investment. A good optics is more helpful in enhancing your image compared to the camera body. Secondly, check for service centre availability and warranty periods.

 

  • Camera Body: Investing in a solid body (magnesium alloy) will give your equipment a longer life. But, they cost more than low/medium ranged cameras. A proper care can ensure that even low/medium ranged cameras can have extended life. If you are planning to buy your DSLR for travel photography, where you need to travel to different climatic conditions, then it is advisable to buy a weather sealed body (i.e. a magnesium alloy body). These bodies are heavier than normal DSLR camera.

 

  • Features: Every DSLR have different features. But there are certain features, which can affect your buying decision. Choose a camera, which have more number of focus points, higher ISO range, higher frames per second, higher megapixel (almost all the new DSLRs have fairly high megapixels, so not a huge point to worry about) and easy to navigate.

 

  • Accessories: Check different accessories (Vendor product or third party products) compatible and available for your camera model. This may include third party lenses, remote release, external flash sync, etc. This will help you save money and make optimum use of your equipment.

 

  • Where to buy: Buying camera from a genuine and reliable place is very important.  Avoid buying from grey market. Camera is a highly technical device, so it is not possible to create a fake camera, but grey market products will not entitle you for the warranty. You may end up with a faulty product for which you cannot claim anything. Therefore, buy it from an authorized dealer of your country. Check prices online and ask for bundled price with lens, extra battery, extra memory, camera bag, UV filter, cleaning kit, etc. Generally, sellers do not reduce the price of the product much, but they can offer you extra accessories, which are very useful for you during your photographic journey.

 

It is also advisable to physically experience the DSLR and its feature before placing an order. This can be done at any camera store, who displays the products for experience.

To know more about choosing, using and enjoying your DSLR, join Indian Institute of Photography

How to compare optical zoom of point and shoot and DSLR camera

How many of you are switching from Point and Shoot/Prosumer digital cameras to DSLRs and finding it difficult to understand the fundamental of available zoom.  Point and Shoot/Prosumer digital cameras mentions the zoom in multiple of “X” , say 10x or 35X, however in DSLRs the lenses do not have any such notifications. They have just focal length in millimeters (mm). So, is a 10X zoom is more than 55mm-250mm zoom?  How to evaluate, which has got better range? Which zoom is better?

To find an answer to this question, we have to first bring the two types of cameras to same platform. Currently, they are like apple and oranges and cannot be compared. We have to bring everything in terms of focal length in mm on a standard scale.

Let us compare both of them to “35 mm equivalent” or to the full frame camera. The size of sensor of full frame camera is 36mm X 24mm (35 mm equivalent). Every camera’s technical specification provides the size of its sensor or the crop factor. You can find this crop factor by dividing the 36mm by longer side of your sensor dimension. For e.g., if you have a Canon APS-C body, then you will have sensor of size 22.3mm X 14.9mm. Now, divide 36mm by 22.3mm, which gives you 1.6. This is your crop factor. Smaller cameras, point and shoot cameras and four third systems have even smaller sensor, so bigger crop factor (refer to the image below). For exact crop factor of your camera, refer to the technical specification provided by the manufacturer.

DSLR camera

DSLR camera

 

To calculate the actual focal length of your lens on your camera, just multiply the focal length with the crop factor. So, 50mm focal length on Canon APS-C is equivalent to 50 X 1.6 = 80mm in full frame format. Smaller point and shoot cameras have crop factors to the tune of 6 or 7. So even if the focal length of the lens on smaller camera is 10 mm, it is actually 60mm in “35 mm equivalent” format.

Now, let us take an example to understand this:

Let us consider three different cameras. A point and shoot camera with 6 x crop factor and 10x zoom, a DSLR (with 1.6x crop factor) with a 55mm to 250mm lens and a Full frame camera with 55mm to 250mm lens.

 

a)     First look at the lens of the point and shoot camera and check what it reads. It will show you something is “mm”, generally starting from around 5 mm. Since it has 10X zoom the reading would be 5mm to 50mm (5X10 = 50). Now, since the camera has 6x crop factor, we will multiply both end of focal lengths by 6 to get a “35 mm equivalent” focal length. In this case it would be 5X6 =30mm and 50X6 = 300mm. So, actually it is 30mm-300mm in “35 mm equivalent.

 

b)    We have DSLR with APS-C size sensor, i.e. a crop factor of 1.6X. The 55mm to 250mm has approximately 5 X of zoom (55 X 5 = 275mm). So, is that really bad compared to our point and shoot camera.

With 55mm – 250mm, the actual focal length would become 55 X 1.6 = 88mm to 250X1.6 mm =  400mm. So, here we actually have a lens with 88mm to 400mm in “35 mm equivalent”.

 

c)     For a full frame camera, a lens with 55mm – 250mm focal length will remain same, as the crop factor is 1.

Now, we are on same platform. The “35mm equivalent” of the three lenses in our example is as follows:

a)     For point and shoot – 30mm – 300mm

b)    For DSLR with APS-C size sensor – 88mm – 400mm

c)     For DSLR with full frame sensor – 55mm – 250mm

Can you compare now? Yes, of course.

But, this does not equip you with everything related with focal length. This article helps only in understanding one aspect of focal length.

To know more about the technical concepts and practical demonstration of focal length and photography, join online or classroom courses of Indian Institute of Photography.

Camera Lenses: Choose the right lens for your situation

A Lens is most important part of photography. For a good image, the quality of lens matters much more than the camera body. If you already have a decent body, then you must consider investing in good optics than upgrading camera body for the sake of few extra megapixels or features.

 

Digital Camera Lenses

 

Different lenses have different types of benefits based on the type of photograph you want to take. Find below the specific situation and corresponding requirement of lens. The actual focal length of the lenses from different manufacturers (Canon, Nikon, Sigma, Tamron, etc) is mentioned, but the specific names of manufacturer have been omitted.

  • Portrait: In Portrait shots, we need sharp focus and mid range focal lengths with large apertures.  A large aperture ensures shallow depth of field and pleasing bokeh effect, which is important to make a portrait stand out. A focal length starting from 50mm to 150mm are ideal for portrait photography.

You can either buy fixed focal length lenses such as 50mm, 85mm, 135mm or zoom lenses such as 24mm-70mm, 24mm-105mm, 18mm, 105mm, and 70mm – 200mm. Fixed focal length lenses provide very sharp images with pleasing bokehs, however, zoom lenses provide more flexibility and you do not need to move to create a frame.

 

  • Landscape: A Landscape image needs broader angle of view, therefore a wide angle lens. You need to capture much broader area and a small focal length lens would be helpful here. A focal length starting from 8mm (we do not have options below 8 mm as of now) and ending anywhere around 35mm would be ideal for landscape photography.

You can consider lenses having 8mm-15mm, 10mm-22mm, 16mm-35mm, 17mm-40mm focal lengths. For landscape photography, it is also important to different filters such as UV, Polarizing, Neutral Density, Graduated Neutral Density to add effect at optical level (To know more about filters, read the article “Photography Basics – Filters”). A full frame body is more useful in landscape images as they provide you even broader angle of view. One can also use fish-eye lens to shoot creative landscape images, but they cannot be use always.

 

  • Wedding: A wedding scene includes well dressed people, enjoying, smiling, talking and dancing. There are also different rituals to be followed in different types of weddings. The lighting levels are relatively low as wedding tend to happen after sunset or in closed halls. Apart from using studio lighting and flash, it is very important to choose best suited lens. A 70mm-200mm with F/2.8 is considered to be one of the best wedding lenses. It provides you a fairly good zoom, so that you do not need to interfere between anybody, a large aperture helps in low light photography and large aperture combines with long focal length to give outstanding bokeh effects. You can capture natural expression using this lens.

However, a second lens such as 24mm – 70mm will help you capture a group of people in one frame.

 

  • Wildlife: Wildlife photography is the real test for any lens. You need the largest possible focal length (as the animal can be far), largest possible aperture (as the lighting condition can vary randomly in forest and fast shutter speeds can be frequent requirement), best image stabilizers (so that you can take stable handheld shots) and lightest possible weight (so that you can hand hold lens for longer duration). Now, one cannot have everything in one lens, but you can always optimize. Large focal length is the most important requirement, so this is the first priority to buy lens for wild life photography. Any lens from 300mm and above is suitable for wild life photography. Keep image stabilization as the second most important factor for Wildlife Photography.

Here, you can either buy prime lenses (300mm, 400mm, 500mm, and 600mm) or zoom lenses (100mm-400mm, 80mm-400mm, 150mm-500mm). The mentioned zoom lenses also provide you flexibility to capture wide shots, but the image quality from a prime lens is incomparable. Moreover, prime lens have larger apertures than zoom lens (but they are very costly).

 

  • Sports: The requirement for Sports Photography is similar to that of Wildlife Photography. The conditions are similar. The only benefit in Sports Photography is that you may fix a position so can use a tripod. The requirement of lens is same as that of Wildlife.

 

  • Night/Low Light: The basic need for night or low light photography is larger aperture. Any lens with aperture equal to or larger than f/2.8 would be considered good for this purpose. The best and cheapest lens for this purpose is 50mm f/1.8.

 

  • Fashion: Fashion Photography need professional grade lenses as the images may be used for commercial purposes. Therefore, a standard zoom lens with focal range falling between 18mm to 200mm (preferably from 50mm to 150mm) and large aperture would do a good job. Some of the best options could be 24mm-70mm, 24mm-105mm and 70mm-200mm. A lens with image stabilizer would be an added advantage. A prime lens may not be very helpful for shooting the ramp walk as you would need to shoot varying distance and would not have much space to move. But, they can be surely given preference for shooting portraits.

 

  • Architecture: The main requirement for Architecture Photography is straight lines. Most of the wide angle lenses make architecture look like tilting inwards, which gives a distorted view. So, here we have limited options. Either shoot from a reasonably good distance using a lens having focal length in the range of 18mm to 200mm or use special purpose lens called tilt and shift lens. One can also use fish-eye lens to shoot creative architecture images, but they cannot be use always.

 

  • Street Photography: Street Photography needs capturing candid expressions. A lens with large aperture and focal length between 100mm-200mm can do a good job. The best lens for this purpose is 70mm-200mm with F/2.8. However, we can also consider lenses starting from broader angle of view such as 18mm-105mm, 24mm-70mm and 24mm-105mm.

 

  • Flower/small objects: To magnify small objects, we have special purpose lens called Macro lens. A Macro lens provides close focusing distance and magnifies the object to show at life size level. The generally available Macro lenses are 50mm, 100mm and 180mm. They are specific Macro lenses so should not be confused with the other lenses. We even have some level of Macro capabilities in general lenses, but they can never capture it as a dedicated Macro lens. A 100mm or 180mm Macro lens is more suitable for use as it can give you safe distance from the object, allowing capturing insects without disturbing them. This lens also helps in capturing sharp and pleasing portraits.

To know more about lenses and their purpose, join online courses of Indian Institute of Photography.Courses covers all the use and demonstration of different types of lenses.

Website: http://www.indianinstituteofphotography.com

 

 

How to compare optical zoom of point and shoot and DSLR camera

How many of you are switching from Point and Shoot/Prosumer digital cameras to DSLRs and finding it difficult to understand the fundamental of available zoom. Point and Shoot/Prosumer digital cameras mentions the zoom in multiple of “X” , say 10x o

r 35X, however in DSLRs the lenses do not have any such notifications. They have just focal length in millimeters (mm). So, is a 10X zoom is more than 55mm-250mm zoom? How to evaluate, which has got better range? Which zoom is better?

To find an answer to this question, we have to first bring the two types of cameras to same platform. Currently, they are like apple and oranges and cannot be compared. We have to bring everything in terms of focal length in mm on a standard scale.

Let us compare both of them to “35 mm equivalent” or to the full frame camera. The size of sensor of full frame camera is 36mm X 24mm (35 mm equivalent). Every camera’s technical specification provides the size of its sensor or the crop factor. You can find this crop factor by dividing the 36mm by longer side of your sensor dimension. For e.g., if you have a Canon APS-C body, then you will have sensor of size 22.3mm X 14.9mm. Now, divide 36mm by 22.3mm, which gives you 1.6. This is your crop factor. Smaller cameras, point and shoot cameras and four third systems have even smaller sensor, so bigger crop factor (refer to the image below). For exact crop factor of your camera, refer to the technical specification provided by the manufacturer.

 

 

 

To calculate the actual focal length of your lens on your camera, just multiply the focal length with the crop factor. So, 50mm focal length on Canon APS-C is equivalent to 50 X 1.6 = 80mm in full frame format. Smaller point and shoot cameras have crop factors to the tune of 6 or 7. So even if the focal length of the lens on smaller camera is 10 mm, it is actually 60mm in “35 mm equivalent” format.

Now, let us take an example to understand this:

Let us consider three different cameras. A point and shoot camera with 6 x crop factor and 10x zoom, a DSLR (with 1.6x crop factor) with a 55mm to 250mm lens and a Full frame camera with 55mm to 250mm lens.

 

a) First look at the lens of the point and shoot camera and check what it reads. It will show you something is “mm”, generally starting from around 5 mm. Since it has 10X zoom the reading would be 5mm to 50mm (5X10 = 50). Now, since the camera has 6x crop factor, we will multiply both end of focal lengths by 6 to get a “35 mm equivalent” focal length. In this case it would be 5X6 =30mm and 50X6 = 300mm. So, actually it is 30mm-300mm in “35 mm equivalent.

 

b) We have DSLR with APS-C size sensor, i.e. a crop factor of 1.6X. The 55mm to 250mm has approximately 5 X of zoom (55 X 5 = 275mm). So, is that really bad compared to our point and shoot camera.

With 55mm – 250mm, the actual focal length would become 55 X 1.6 = 88mm to 250X1.6 mm = 400mm. So, here we actually have a lens with 88mm to 400mm in “35 mm equivalent”.

 

c) For a full frame camera, a lens with 55mm – 250mm focal length will remain same, as the crop factor is 1.

Now, we are on same platform. The “35mm equivalent” of the three lenses in our example is as follows:

a) For point and shoot – 30mm – 300mm

b) For DSLR with APS-C size sensor – 88mm – 400mm

c) For DSLR with full frame sensor – 55mm – 250mm

Can you compare now? Yes, of course.

But, this does not equip you with everything related with focal length. This article helps only in understanding one aspect of focal length.

To know more about the technical concepts and practical demonstration of focal length and photography, join online or classroom courses of Indian Institute of Photography.

Visit:http://www.indianinstituteofphotography.com

 

 

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How many of you are switching from Point and Shoot/Prosumer digital cameras to DSLRs and finding it difficult to understand the fundamental of available zoom. Point and Shoot/Prosumer digital cameras mentions the zoom in multiple of “X” , say 10x or 35X, however in DSLRs the lenses do not have any such notifications. They have just focal length in millimeters (mm). So, is a 10X zoom is more than 55mm-250mm zoom? How to evaluate, which has got better range? Which zoom is better?
To find an answer to this question, we have to first bring the two types of cameras to same platform. Currently, they are like apple and oranges and cannot be compared. We have to bring everything in terms of focal length in mm on a standard scale.
Let us compare both of them to “35 mm equivalent” or to the full frame camera. The size of sensor of full frame camera is 36mm X 24mm (35 mm equivalent). Every camera’s technical specification provides the size of its sensor or the crop factor. You can find this crop factor by dividing the 36mm by longer side of your sensor dimension. For e.g., if you have a Canon APS-C body, then you will have sensor of size 22.3mm X 14.9mm. Now, divide 36mm by 22.3mm, which gives you 1.6. This is your crop factor. Smaller cameras, point and shoot cameras and four third systems have even smaller sensor, so bigger crop factor (refer to the image below). For exact crop factor of your camera, refer to the technical specification provided by the manufacturer.

To calculate the actual focal length of your lens on your camera, just multiply the focal length with the crop factor. So, 50mm focal length on Canon APS-C is equivalent to 50 X 1.6 = 80mm in full frame format. Smaller point and shoot cameras have crop factors to the tune of 6 or 7. So even if the focal length of the lens on smaller camera is 10 mm, it is actually 60mm in “35 mm equivalent” format.
Now, let us take an example to understand this:
Let us consider three different cameras. A point and shoot camera with 6 x crop factor and 10x zoom, a DSLR (with 1.6x crop factor) with a 55mm to 250mm lens and a Full frame camera with 55mm to 250mm lens.

a) First look at the lens of the point and shoot camera and check what it reads. It will show you something is “mm”, generally starting from around 5 mm. Since it has 10X zoom the reading would be 5mm to 50mm (5X10 = 50). Now, since the camera has 6x crop factor, we will multiply both end of focal lengths by 6 to get a “35 mm equivalent” focal length. In this case it would be 5X6 =30mm and 50X6 = 300mm. So, actually it is 30mm-300mm in “35 mm equivalent.

b) We have DSLR with APS-C size sensor, i.e. a crop factor of 1.6X. The 55mm to 250mm has approximately 5 X of zoom (55 X 5 = 275mm). So, is that really bad compared to our point and shoot camera.
With 55mm – 250mm, the actual focal length would become 55 X 1.6 = 88mm to 250X1.6 mm = 400mm. So, here we actually have a lens with 88mm to 400mm in “35 mm equivalent”.

c) For a full frame camera, a lens with 55mm – 250mm focal length will remain same, as the crop factor is 1.
Now, we are on same platform. The “35mm equivalent” of the three lenses in our example is as follows:
a) For point and shoot – 30mm – 300mm
b) For DSLR with APS-C size sensor – 88mm – 400mm
c) For DSLR with full frame sensor – 55mm – 250mm
Can you compare now? Yes, of course.
But, this does not equip you with everything related with focal length. This article helps only in understanding one aspect of focal length.
To know more about the technical concepts and practical demonstration of focal length and photography, join online or classroom courses of Indian Institute of Photography.
Visit:http://www.indianinstituteofphotography.com

Path:

How to create the Bokeh effect With Digital Camera?

Photography Basics – The Bokeh Effect

Have you noticed certain out of focus circles in images? Do you appreciate portrait images with blurred (out of focus) background? Does it not highlight the portrait against the overall scene? But, do you feel that it must not happen, as camera should capture what your eye is seeing.  Do you see it as a defect?

It is not at all a defect; in fact, it has got lot of artistic value. We call it “The Bokeh effect”.  These are basically “out of focus” parts of the image. Bokeh is most artistic, when we have light sources in the scene. It creates blurred out circles of light sources, giving a distinct effect, not visible to a normal eye.

To create bokeh effect of light sources, you need some object in foreground and multiple light sources (small enough to be capture in one frame) in the background. For e.g., in the image of Christmas lights below, we need focus on any light series in the front, rest of the light sources will create the bokeh effect.

bokeh-effect

We will discuss the technical details behind it and also learn how to create bokeh effects in simple ways. (It is anyway a very simple to create it).

It depends on the four factors:

 

  • The Aperture: Larger the Aperture better is the bokeh effect. In fact, Aperture plays most important role in creating bokehs. For good bokeh, we need apertures larger than F/2.8. Larger aperture throws the background out of focus, which creates this effect. The shapes of these circles are same as that of diaphragm. We can even create the shapes of our choice, using as external filter with required shapes.

 

  • The focal length: Larger the focal length better is the bokeh effect. We need to shoot at the longest focal length of the lens to create good bokeh effect. However, we can play with different focal lengths here. If you recall, most of the wildlife and sports images have background blurred. This is primarily because; these images have been taken at very long focal lengths (more than 300mm).

 

  • The distance from the subject: Closer the distance from the subject, the better is the bokeh effect. For a good bokeh effect you need the main subject as close as possible (which you want to keep in focus). This is why, in Macro shots (which are taken from close distance), it gets difficult to keep everything in focus. However, we never face such problem in shooting landscapes, where most of the objects are at fairly large distance.

 

The image below is taken from a very short distance from the earthen pots. The background light sources have created the bokeh. You can see the pentagon shapes, which is actually the shape of the diaphragm blades of the lens.

  • The sensor of the camera: Larger the sensor better is the bokeh effect. We do not get a good bokeh effect in point and shoot cameras primarily because of the small sensor size. For good bokeh, a D-SLR camera with larger aperture is an important ingredient. But, even if you do not have a D-SLR, you can combine the other three factors to create bokeh.

 

In the image below, a Garden Lizard has been captured from a close distance, at a large aperture and at a longer focal length using a D-SLR Camera.

To understand and implement the concept of bokeh practically and to listen from the experts, join Indian Institute of Photography.

http://www.indianinstituteofphotography.com/

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

Basic Photography Filters for DSLR Camera

Photography Basics – Filters

The facility of clicking the image in digital format provides us lot of flexibility. Multiple accessories, which are used in film regime, can be managed using any good photo editing software. But there are still some controls, which can be applied only at the optical level instead of digital level. This means, some accessories are still indispensible and most prominent among those are filters.

Filters are fine glass with different properties, position between optical path of light and the lens. Each lens has its outer diameter in “mm”, we need to use the same size of filter. This is standardized up to some level, i.e., we have some specific diameters of the lenses such us 50mm, 52mm,67mm, 58mm, 77mm, 95mm, etc. Apart from providing extra control of incoming light, filters also provide:

  • Protection to the glass surface of the lens from accidental damage, and frequent cleaning.
  • The cost of filter is generally small fraction of the cost of the lens, so a plain or UV filter is must on every lens.
  • Weather sealing for the lens

The two main drawbacks of the filter are that, it being an extra glass element in front of lens can introduce defects at optical level and slow down the AF speed of the lens. However, this effect is negligible and un-noticeable. One can always choose a better quality of filter to keep this affect to minimum. Highly professional photographers may only need to worry about it.

Here are basics of most important filter.

  • Plain Filter: This is just a plain glass for the protection of lens. This does not change any property of the light.
  • Ultra Violet (UV) filter: It absorbs the ultraviolet rays which often makes outdoor photographs hazy and indistinct. It is primarily helpful in landscape shots where we have blue sky. It also serves as a permanent lens protector, so a must for every lens.
  • Circular Polarizing (CP) filter: This filter works on the special property of reflected light. Whenever light reflects from shining surface (such as glass, water, etc), they turn their orientation by certain degrees. This is called polarization. Circular Polarizing Filter helps in managing this reflection. It allows you to remove unwanted reflections from non-metallic surfaces such as water, glass etc. They also enable colors to become more saturated and appear clearer with better contrast. This effect is often used to increase the contrast and saturation in blue skies and white clouds. You can just rotate the filter to get the desired effect. This filter must be part of every nature and landscape photographer’s kit.
  • Neutral Density (ND) Filter: The ND filters reduce the amount of light entering the lens so wider apertures can be selected without reducing the shutter speed on a bright day light. This is perfect for portraiture to reduce depth of field. The subject appears crisp and clear while the background becomes a soft blur. It is also widely used for photographs of waterfalls and other nature scenes to emphasize movement, because we can use slower shutter speeds on bright day light. Without this filter, you will need to wait for the sun set to get the similar effect.

These are generally available with ratings ND2, ND4, ND8, ND16 and so on. Each “n” multiple of 2 here represent the decrease in light by “n” f-stops. For e.g., ND8 means the light will be decreased by 3 f-stops (2^3 = 8).

  • Graduated Neutral Density (GND) Filter: These filters have the same principle as the regular ND filters but with one important distinction, they do not have the ND effect on the whole glass. The ND effect is gradual and is perfect if you want to have the sky darkened but not the foreground (which is helpful when we have bright sky and dull foreground). The top half decreases the amount of light being let in (usually by 1, 2 or 3 ‘stops’) while the bottom half lets the darker part of your scene to be exposed normally. These filters have their limits, such as the gradual transition is a straight line, which might not always be the case with nature. They are also rather expensive. Most of these filters are rectangular and uses a special holder to place them in.
  • Soft focus filter: It creates a picture with a clear focus and a soft gradation. This effect is especially evident on an object with a point light source. This filter has randomly arranging minute lens shaped like drops of water on the surface of an acrylic board scattering the light and resulting in a soft focus. This is very helpful in giving special effects to portrait shots. However, this affect can be achieved at post-editing level as well.
  • Macro Filter: These filters are actually a type of lens, which reduces the minimum focusing distance of the lens. This helps in taking shots from close range giving Macro effect.
  • Color Filters: Color filters are available in different colors such as red, green, blue and with different intensities. These help in color correction at optical level. However, we can manage without this filter also as the color correction can be done at post-editing level as well.

To know, learn and practice more about filter, choose from different class room programs of Indian Institute of Photography.

 

http://www.indianinstituteofphotography.com/

 

 

Nikon D90 Vs Nikon D300/D300s

Nikon D90 Vs Nikon D300/D300sIf you  are having a hard time in picking between Nikon D90 and Nikon D300/D300s then IndianInstituteofPhotography.com (IIP) recommends you with the following suggestions in selecting the cameras.

If you are not planning to photograph fast-action sports, action or wildlife, you can go for Nikon D90 over Nikon D300/D300s. especially if it is your first Digital SLR.  Nikon D90 is an excellent one that works great for portraits, landscapes and other types of photography where speed is not considered important. When we see Nikon 300 Vs D90 high ISO comparison, Nikon D90 performs with noise in high ISOs a little better than Nikon D300. This is because of a slightly better sensor and  much better more aggressive noise-reduction algorithm on the Nikon D90.

Nikon D90 with a 12.3-megapixel sensor,  rises to the resolution of the more professional D300. When it comes to sensitivity it  shares the same as the D300, ranging from ISO 200 to 3,200, plus L1 (100) and H1 (6,400).

An essential upgrade on the Nikon D90 is the high resolution 3-inch LCD screen. The 920,000-pixel display of Nikon D90 has a 170-degree viewing angle and appears to be as good as the new screens found on the D3 and D300. The checking focus and using Live view mode are much more pleasant of this high resolution 3inch LCD screen.

Nikon D90 is smaller and lighter than the D300, but still it has a good grip, providing a good dent inside the grip for the tips of your fingers.

 Each camera is designed to fit into the niche it was meant for. Both D90 and D300 are very similar in the way they can make an image look. As far as Picture controls, they  have  same basic technology. So we can say, the D90 is a summer fun camera and the one suited mostly for portraits and long exposure shots and scenery. Whereas the D300 can be considered as a serious camera that can be used  during the winter birding season or when we head out to the mountains or forest.

If you would like to compare the image quality of both the cameras, Nikon D90  has a very slight edge over Nikon D300. Moreover, accessories for Nikon D90 are much cheaper than for Nikon D300/D300s (we can say battery grip and remote camera trigger). So if you are not having any special needs you should buy Nikon D90.

If you would like to have more details on this camera selection, click on to www.indianinstituteofphotography.com


by team IIP

Best DSLR camera

We can get high-quality images in Digital single lens reflex DSLR camera, the compact option and point-and-shoot ease. Every year Canon, Nikon and Sony companies introduce or market new additions to their product lines; it brings confusion to the consumers which DSLRs are the best. Before making a purchase every camera selections vary in cost and it should be deeply researched for its strengths and weaknesses, as well as what we need in the camera.

Canon

In Quality concern the Canon cameras are one of the worldwide recognized cameras. Presently including the Rebel line, Canon has 13 DSLRs to choose from, which have been  the bestseller for years since it’s launches at the turn of the 21st century.


Full-HD (1080p) shooting video option available in Canon’s 7D, 5D Mark II and 1D Mark III cameras.


Nikon

Including the well popular D90 series Nikon introduced nine consumers ready DSLRs. Nikon is often referred to as the “yin” to Cannons ‘Yang.” Nikon D90 was the first DSLR to boast an HD movie mode, and it allows movie clips to capture at 24 frames per second and upto 720p HD. For non-professional range of cameras anyone wants to purchase in a top quality without affecting their budget the D300 series is the best choice. Nikon also offers professional cameras priced in excess of $3,000 if your needs are greater and if your budget allows.

Sony

Sony has handful range of popular DSLR models, including the popular DSLR-4000 series, which was launched in October 2007. From that time onwards, Sony has introduced wide range of camera choices. Among the one is a 55 series, which called Photography Magazine’s Camera of the Year recently. This camera options offers Sony’s new Translucent Mirror Technology & professional-grade continuous shooting at 10 frames per second.

Other Choices

Olympus currently offers three DSLR cameras, including the E-5, its new flagship camera, which replaces the popular E-3 model. If you have planned to purchase a DSLR camera and would like to have more information about the camera features you can refer IndianInstituteofPhotography.com (IIP) website, the Online Photography School and get more updated information’s about DSLR cameras. Click onto  www.indianinstituteofphotography.com and  enjoy clicking photos.

 by team IIP

Top DSLR Cameras for Beginners

Those in the beginners level in photography looking for a high-quality camera, there is a DSLR camera to meet nearly every personality type. You can purchase your DSLR camera within your budget. Click on to IndianInstituteofPhotography.com (IIP) and get more merits and demerits information’s about DSLR Cameras.

Herewith we provide you a few details. Various models Digital SLR cameras are available in different price ranges and categories based on ease of use, features and quality of images. For the beginners the digital SLR cameras offer user-friendly features and high-quality image production, making them good starter cameras to choose from.

Canon EOS Rebel XS -The features of Canon EOS Rebel XS DSLR is 10 megapixels, a 18-55 mm lens and live view mode. This is a base-level model camera, but for a beginner-level DSLR, it holds its own quite well.

Canon EOS Rebel T2i – it offers many beginner-level features and benefits; the quality of this camera offers rivals higher-end models. This camera shoots 1080p HD video in 24 and 30 frames per second and offers full manual controls and full autofocus.

Canon EOS 50D- This camera is well suited to beginners, Features of the camera is speedy with high/best quality photograph. This camera has a 15-megapixel sensor, and 6.3 frames per second continuous shooting and its expanded sensitivity range is as high as 12,800.

Canon EOS 7D –Full manual control, superior quality image, other features 8 frames per second continuous shooting and 18-megapixel resolution, 19-point autofocus, large viewfinder, 1.0x magnification and video recording capabilities.

Canon EOS 5D Mark II –This is a slightly older DSLR camera, but is still the best camera for the beginners. The features of this camera are 21.1-megapixel resolution; we get solid performance even in low lighting. And 1080p video at 30 frames per second and offers full manual control as well.

Nikon D5000 – HD video recording at 720p, 2.7 inch LCD with tilt and swivel capabilities and a 4fps shooting speed. 11-point autofocus, CMOS sensor & 18-55 mm lens. And solid feature set coupled with high image quality, even it comes to low-light photography.

Nikon D90 – Offer capabilities for video recording, 720p recording at 24 frames per second, which should be adequate for most beginners. The Nikon D90 offers both high image quality and solid performance.

Other ranges Olympus E-30, Pentax K-x, Sony Alpha A230 For further reference browse www.indianinstituteofphotography.com

by team IIP

Nikon or Canon? A Comparative Study

In digital camera market Nikon & Canon Brand digital cameras are popular & pioneer.

The Canon Power shot G9 Brand and Nikon D700 camera both are digital cameras. Each one is appropriate for different uses and it should be taken into account.


Type of Camera – The Canon Power shot G9 is a compact digital camera. And the Nikon D700 is a digital single lens reflex type. Nikon D700 can be described as a digital equivalent to a 35 mm film camera designed for professional use, and the Canon Power shot G9 is a compact point-and-shoot camera.


Resolution and Image Clarity

  • The Nikon D700 & Canon Power shot G9 both digital cameras have 12.1 million effective pixels capturing images.

  • In Nikon the lens is much better equipped to fully utilize the high resolution, results in better images.

  • The lens on the Cannon Power shot G9 is fixed; the D700 camera body can be used with many different lenses.

ISO, Shutter Speed and Flash

  • Nikon D700 has a minimum ISO of 200 and a maximum of 6,400 with an additional ISO equivalent of 25,600.

  • Canon Power shot G9, ranges between 80 and 800 with an additional 1,600 equivalent.

  • Nikon D700 camera shutter speed settings are between 1/8,000 of a second and 30 seconds.

  • Cannon Power shot G9 camera settings are between 1/2,500 of a second and 15 seconds.

  • Both cameras have built-in flashes with manual and automatic settings.

  • Nikon D700 has a more versatile flash with significantly shorter recycle time.


  1. TCanon 5D Mark II & Nikon D700


 

Both TCanon 5D Mark II and Nikon D700 are digital cameras manufactured for the use of amateur and professional photographers. Some salient features explained here

  • Canon 5D Mark II takes pictures at a 21.1-megapixel resolution.

  • The Nikon D700 captures  pictures at a considerably smaller 12.1-megapixel resolution.

  • To view the pictures, both Canon 5D Mark II and the Nikon D700 have 3-inch LCD screens available.

  • Canon 5D Mark II can capture pictures at a rate of 3.9 frames per second.

  • Nikon D700 can capture photos faster, at 5 frames per second.

  • In Canon 5D Mark II the shooting of high-definition video is at 1920 by 1080 resolution. Video recording cannot be done in  Nikon D700.

Indian Insitute of Photography.com provides you more guidelines and tip on camera brands and their features. To get more information click on to www.indianinstituteofphotography.com


by team IIP

Overview of affordable segment cameras

Nikon COOLPIX S3100- 14 MP Digital

It is one of the most popular cameras available in the market. The quality of the picture is amazing with good zoom function. It is also available in wide range of colours like blue, silver, red, black and etc. The slim look of the camera adds to the style. It is also equipped with playback function along with a new enhanced ‘Portrait mode’. It also support multilingual format which makes it user friendly. Moreover, filters effects can also be experimented in this camera to get desired results. Battery backup is also one of the key features of this camera. With its long backup technology it gives some of the hassle free experience to the user. A very good quality output can be expected from this camera within a very limited budget. The price is very competitive with some of the best quality features. Its user friendly nature adds on to the overall popularity of the product.

Canon Power Shot A1200 -12.1 MP Digital

Canon power shot is a good camera with professional quality output. It is well equipped with advanced mode that can detect up to 32 different scenes and adjust automatically to give some best results. It captures the image with 12.1 megapixel clarity with 4x Zoom. The user can also experiment with multiple filter modes with this camera. The camera is very user friendly with a 28mm wide angle lens which gives better viewing perspective while taking pictures. Its blur reduction function also works effectively to capture some of the moving objects professionally. Canon is a leading manufacturer in terms of quality and features. A wide range of colours are also available.

 

Brand:
  • Nikon
  • Canon
Model No:
  • COOLPIX S3100
  • Power Shot A1200
Mega Pixel:
  • 14  MP
  • 12.1 MP
Zoom:
  • Optical Zoom: 5x
  • Digital Zoom: 4x
  • 4x
  • 5x
Screen Size:
  • 2.7” inches
  • 2.7” inches
Sensor:
  • Type. CCD

 

  • CCD
ISO sensitivity
  • Auto:80-1600
  • Manual 80-3200
  • 80-1600
Aperture/Autofocus
  • YES
YES
Memory/Storage Internal Memory 45 MB

External memory- YES

Storage Type – SD/SDHC/SDXC card

  • SD/SDHC card
Battery
  • Li-ion
  • AA
Dimensions:
  • 93.5 x 57.5 x 18.4 mm
  • 97.5 x 62 x 30.7 mm
Price Range
  • Rs 6500-6900
  • Rs. 5800-6200